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Surah Al-Baqarah 2:30-39 <4/40>
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وَاِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلٰٓـئِكَةِ اِنِّىۡ جَاعِلٌ فِى الۡاَرۡضِ خَلِيۡفَةً ؕ قَالُوۡٓا اَتَجۡعَلُ فِيۡهَا مَنۡ يُّفۡسِدُ فِيۡهَا وَيَسۡفِكُ الدِّمَآءَۚ وَنَحۡنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَـكَؕ قَالَ اِنِّىۡٓ اَعۡلَمُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ وَعَلَّمَ اٰدَمَ الۡاَسۡمَآءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمۡ عَلَى الۡمَلٰٓـئِكَةِ فَقَالَ اَنۡۢبِـُٔوۡنِىۡ بِاَسۡمَآءِ هٰٓؤُلَآءِ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِيۡنَ قَالُوۡا سُبۡحٰنَكَ لَا عِلۡمَ لَنَآ اِلَّا مَا عَلَّمۡتَنَا ؕ اِنَّكَ اَنۡتَ الۡعَلِيۡمُ الۡحَكِيۡمُ قَالَ يٰٓـاٰدَمُ اَنۡۢبِئۡهُمۡ بِاَسۡمَآئِهِمۡۚ فَلَمَّآ اَنۡۢبَاَهُمۡ بِاَسۡمَآئِهِمۡۙ قَالَ اَلَمۡ اَقُل لَّـكُمۡ اِنِّىۡٓ اَعۡلَمُ غَيۡبَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضِۙ وَاَعۡلَمُ مَا تُبۡدُوۡنَ وَمَا كُنۡتُمۡ تَكۡتُمُوۡنَ وَاِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلٰٓـئِكَةِ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِاٰدَمَ فَسَجَدُوۡٓا اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِيۡسَؕ اَبٰى وَاسۡتَكۡبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الۡكٰفِرِيۡنَ وَقُلۡنَا يٰٓـاٰدَمُ اسۡكُنۡ اَنۡتَ وَزَوۡجُكَ الۡجَـنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنۡهَا رَغَدًا حَيۡثُ شِئۡتُمَا وَلَا تَقۡرَبَا هٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُوۡنَا مِنَ الظّٰلِمِيۡنَ فَاَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيۡطٰنُ عَنۡهَا فَاَخۡرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيۡهِ وَقُلۡنَا اهۡبِطُوۡا بَعۡضُكُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ وَلَـكُمۡ فِى الۡاَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ وَّمَتَاعٌ اِلٰى حِيۡنٍ فَتَلَقّٰٓى اٰدَمُ مِنۡ رَّبِّهٖ كَلِمٰتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيۡهِؕ اِنَّهٗ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيۡمُ قُلۡنَا اهۡبِطُوۡا مِنۡهَا جَمِيۡعًا ۚ فَاِمَّا يَاۡتِيَنَّكُمۡ مِّنِّىۡ هُدًى فَمَنۡ تَبِعَ هُدَاىَ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُوۡنَ وَالَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا وَكَذَّبُوۡا بِـاٰيٰتِنَآ اُولٰٓٮِٕكَ اَصۡحٰبُ النَّارِۚ هُمۡ فِيۡهَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ
(2:30) just think36 once your Lord stated to the angels:37 “Lo! i am about to location a vicegerent38 top top earth,” castle said: “Will You place on that one that will spread out mischief and also shed blood39 ketika we memory Your popularitas and extol her holiness?”40 the said: “Surely i know apa you carry out not know.”41 (2:31) kemudian Allah taught Adam the name of all things42 and presented them to the angels and said: “If girlfriend are best (that the meeting of a vicegerent will reason mischief) kemudian tell Me the name of this things.” (2:32) castle said. “Glory come You! We have no pengetahuan except maafkan saya You taught us.43 You, just You, are All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (2:33) then Allah said to Adam: “Tell lock the name of these things.”44 and when he had told lock the name of every things, Allah said: “Did I not say to you the I understand everything around the heavens and also the earth which are beyond your selection of pengetahuan and I understand all that you disclose and also all that you hide?” (2:34) and when we ordered the angels: “Prostrate yourselves sebelum Adam,” all of them fell prostrate,45 other than Iblis.46 he refused, and gloried in his arrogance and became among the defiers.47 (2:35) and We said: “O Adam, live in the Garden, you and also your wife, and eat abundantly of every little thing you wish however do not method this tree48 or else you will certainly be counted amongst the wrong-doers.”49 (2:36) yet Satan resulted in both of castle to deflect from obeying our command through tempting them to the tree and brought them out of the state they menjadi in, and also We said: “Get dibawah all the you; henceforth, each of you is an enemy of the other,50 and also on earth you dimaksudkan untuk have your abode and also your livelihood because that an appointed time.” (2:37) Thereupon Adam learned from his Lord part words and also repented51 and his Lord welcomed his repentance for He is Much-Relenting, paling Compassionate.52 (2:38) we said: “Get you dibawah from here,53 every one of you, and guidance akan come to you from Me: then, whoever will follow my guidance need have actually no fear, nor dimaksudkan untuk they grieve. (2:39) But itu who refuse to accept this (guidance) and also reject Our indicators as false54 room destined because that the api where they dimaksudkan untuk abide because that ever.”55
36. Thus much man has actually been summoned to serve and also obey God on the grounds that God is his creator and sustainer, that in His understand lies man"s life and also death, the He alone is the Lord that rules end the whole universe in which that lives. In watch of this, the only mindset which have the right to be deemed sesuai for man is among service and also subjection come God. The very same idea is gift in the following section, however supported top top slightly berbeda grounds In this link the Qur"an defines precisely the true nature of man and also his correct place in the universe. It also enlightens us to a ketentuan of man"s previous which is otherwise inaccessible. Apa the Qur"an tells us here, with its handy consequences, is the far lebih besar lagi value than pengetahuan derived by unearthing bones and pottery, and piecing together scattered pieces of info with the membantu of conjecture.
38. "Khalifah" or vicegerent is one that exercises the authority delegated to him by his principal, and melakukan so in the capacity of his deputy and also agent. Hence, every little thing authority he possesses is not naturally his own, but is derived from, and also circumscribed by, the limits set by his principal. A vicegerent is no entitled to do what he pleases, however is obliged to lug out the will of his master. If the vicegerent were either to begin thinking self the actual owner and to use the government delegated come him in whatever manner he pleased, or if he menjadi to identify someone other than the real owner together his lord and also master and also to follow his directions, these would certainly be deemed acts the infidelity and rebellion.
39. This to be not claimed by method of objection or protest. It was said fairly by way of inquiry and also in order come satisfy milik mereka curiosity; that is inconceivable that the angels could object to any of God"s decisions. The word "vicegerent" argued to them the the proposed types of creation would be put on earth with part authority. It was incomprehensible come them exactly how a varieties of being which had been invested v discretionary power and also authority mungkin conform v the all at once order the the universe, which is based on absolute and also involuntary subservience come the will certainly of God. They komandan that investing anyone with authority in any part of the world would result in mischief and also disorder. That is this element which the angels were curious about.
40. This melakukan not average that the angels taken into consideration themselves perfect for "vicegerency". They merely wanted to point out that God"s orders dulu already being carried out fully, that they - the angels - were engaged in doing His will and also that follow to His divine will the entire universe was maintained in a state of pure purity; moreover, God"s glory was constantly being extolled and also His holiness celebrated. Dari allthese things dulu being done, they want to ask maafkan saya gap to be still taken into consideration to exist that called for the creation of a brand-new species of being to fill it.The indigenous tasbih has actually two meanings: (i) come proclaim popularitas and (ii) to exert oneself earnestly and also energetically. In the same way taqdis has two meanings: (i) to celebrate or proclaim holiness and also (ii) to purify.
41. This was solution to the last doubt expressed by the angels. The angels were told the the factor for the appointment of a vicegerent was ideal known come God alone and could not be construed by them. Despite the services rendered by the angels, miscellaneous over and above their work was still required. God decided, therefore, to create a new species of being in the dunia and come invest it through some authority.
42. The alam of man"s knowledge is seperti that that acquires details of berbeda things through milik mereka names. Hence it can be stated that the sum bruto of man"s pengetahuan consists of the name of things. Come teach Adam the name of all things means, therefore, imparting the pengetahuan of those things. Us.43 you, just You, space All-Knowing, all Wise."
43. It seems that the knowledge of every angel and also each genre of angel is confined to its own sphere the competence. The angels appointed come administer, let united state say, points relating come air have full knowledge about this subject yet have no knowledge, say, about water, and so on and so forth. Man"s variety of knowledge, however, is comprehensive. Even if man"s info in a certain area might be narrower 보다 that of the point of view directly involved with it, the bruto range the his pengetahuan has a comprehensiveness which has not to be granted to the angels.
44. This show of Adam"s capacity was response to the very first of the doubt the angels had expressed. In this manner, they menjadi made to realize that God had not only bestowed part authority ~ above man, but had juga endowed him through knowledge. Are afraid of mischief and disorder with man"s appointment as vicegerent is just one element of the matter. The other facet is constructive and also offsets man"s potentiality for dispersing mischief. Because that the wise will certainly not sacrifice a terutama good for fear of a boy harm.
45. This signifies the all the angels whose jurisdiction embraces the earth and also that component of the world in i beg your pardon the earth is situated were ordered to devote themselves come man"s service. Dari man had actually been invested through authority on planet the angels were told that whenever man wanted to manipulate the powers v which he had actually been invested by God, and which God the His very own will had allowed him come use, they must co-operate v him and allow him to do every little thing to do, regardless of whether of right and wrong. This can be construed with reference to the metode in which government employees are forced to work. When a sovereign appoints a governor or a magistrate, all government employees dibawah his jurisdiction space duty not. However as shortly as the sovereign ditampilkan to those employees the the governor or magistrate should be barred indigenous doing something, the effective authority that the branch or the magistrate comes to an abrupt end. In fact, menjadi the can be fried to masalah the order the the branch be dismissed or imprisoned, the exact same employees who until then had been dinamis to and fro at his bidding would not feel doubtful in placing hand ~ above him and also taking him come prison. God"s order to the angels to prostrate themselves sebelum Adam to be of a similar nature. That is mungkin that prostration signifies the fact of their becoming yoked to man"s service. At the exact same time the is juga possible the they, were ordered to execute the plot of prostration diri sendiri as a gejala of the envisaged relationship in between angels and also man. In my check out the latter seems more plausible.
46. Heck literally way "thoroughly disappointed; completely in despair". In islamic terminology the word denotes the jinn who, in defiance of God"s command, refuse to obey and also to yoke self to the business of Adam and also his progeny and asked God to allow him a term once he might mislead and also tempt kemanusiaan to evil and also error. That is also called al-Shaytan (Satan) In kebenaran Satan (or Iblis) is not an abstract, personally force. Like manusia beings he is possessed of a particular personality. Moreover, one have to not do the wrong of considering Satan one angel. Di tempat lain the Qur"an itself clearly states that he was a jinn and jinn, as we know, room an live independence species, distinctive from the angels. See( Qur"an 18: 50.)
47. These words it seems to be ~ to indicate that in committing disobedience heck was most likely not alone. Maafkan saya seems to have actually been the case is that a ar of the jinn to be bent ~ above rebellion and the surname of iblis is discussed only because he was milik mereka leader and also the most noted amongst them because that his rebellion. Another translation of this sentence could be: "? and he was of the defiers (kafirin)". If this feeling is correct, this words would signify that there was already a party the rebellious and also recalcitrant jinn and also that heck belonged to the party. In the Qur"an words shayatin (satans) denotes these jinn and dari mereka offspring. Hence, at any time the konteks itself melakukan not suggest that the term has been digunakan for manusia beings who possess satanic attributes, the word " Satans" need to be construed to denote these satanic jinn.
48. This indicates that before man was sent to earth Moreover, because that this kind of test Paradise to be the best mungkin place. Apa God wanted to impress on man was the the only location that befits man"s terminal is Paradise, and that if guy turns indigenous the food of obedience to God as a result of Satanic allurements, the will remain deprived of it in the next Life also as he was deprived that it once before. The only method he can recover his true negara and reclaim the shed Paradise is by resisting properly the enemy who is always trying to journey him turn off the food of obedience come God.
49. The use of words "wrong-doer" is extremely significant. "Wrong-doing" is composed in withholding someone"s rights and the wrong-doer is one that withholds those rights from anda legitimate claimants. Anyone who disobeys God withholds three major rights. The first is what is because of God, for He has actually the ideal to it is in obeyed. Second, there space the izin of all itu things i m sorry a guy employs in disobeying God. The parts of his body, his mental energy, his fellow-beings, those angels who, dibawah Divine dispensation, have actually been appointed to allow him to achieve his aims. Both righteous and also unrighteous, the product objects which that employs in his acts of disobedience - all these have actually a rightful case upon him to be used in cara that you re welcome God. Yet when he supplies them in ways which displease God that commits wrong against them all. Third, he wrongs his own diri sendiri which has the right to be conserved from perdition. Through inviting penalty from God since of his disobedience he wrongs his own aku as well. That is for these reasons that the word "wrong" is often used in the Qur"an because that sin, and the word "wrong-doer" because that sinner
50. This method that Satan is the adversary of man, and keburukan versa. That Satan is the enemy, of man is noticeable enough, for he make the efforts to drive him off the course of obedience come God and also leads him to perdition, but one might wonder exactly how man mungkin be described as the enemy of Satan. The sebenarnya is that man"s crucial humanity buatlah this enmity incumbent upon him. Man, however, is regularly deceived through Satan and befriends him owing to the temptations the he holds the end to him. This sort of friendship melakukan not typical that the basic, irreconcilable clash the interests in between man and Satan has actually been resolved. It only way that among the two (Satan) has defeated and successfully trapped the various other (man).
51. This method that when Adam became conscious of his plot of sin and wanted to return indigenous his state the disobedience to that of obedience, and when the tried to seek remission for his sin from God, he was unable to discover the native to usage in his prayer to God. In His Mercy God taught him the words with which he bisa pray. Words tawbah usually denotes "to come back, to turn towards someone". Tawbah, on the component of man, signifies the he has given up his perspective of disobedience and also has went back to submission and obedience to God. The exact same word used in respect of God method that He has mercifully turned in the direction of His repentant maid so that the latter has actually once more akan an object of His compassionate attention.
52. The Qur"an refutes the doctrine that specific consequences necessarily monitor from sins and that guy must in all cases bear them. In kebenaran this is among the most misleading doctrines to have been developed by human imagination. If it were true it would average that a sinner would tidak pernah have the possibility to have his repentance accepted. That is a mechanistic see of reward and punishment and also thus prevents and also discourages the sinner native trying come improve. The Qur"an, on the contrary, tells male that reward for good bertindak and punishment for negative ones rests sama sekali with God. The reward that one obtain for an excellent acts is no the natural an effect of those acts; the is rather as result of the anggun and benevolence the God and also it is entirely up to Him to reward one or not. Likewise, punishment for angry deeds is no a natural and unalterable repercussion of man"s acts. God has sepenuhnya authority come punish guy for his sin as well as to pardon him. God"s grace and mercy, however, are interrelated v His wisdom. Since He is wise, He melakukan not use His power arbitrarily. Hence, anytime God rewards a man for his an excellent acts, He melakukan so because the great was done with purity that intention and for the sake of satisfaction God. And if God refuses to expropriate an plot of noticeable goodness, He does so since that act had merely the membentuk or illustration of goodness, and was not urged by the desire to you re welcome God. In the same means God punishes male for those sins which that commits through rebellious boldness, and also which whet his appetite for more rather than lead him come repentance. Similarly, in His mercy God pardons those sins i beg your pardon are complied with by actual repentance and also readiness ~ above the component of the sinner to untuk merevolusi himself. There is no need for the criminal come despair that God"s keanggunan and mercy, no issue how an excellent a criminal the is. Nor is there any kind of reason for also the paling rabid disbeliever come despair, noted he recognizes his error, repents the his disobedience and also is ready to change his former disobedience through obedience.
53. The reiteration of this explain is significant. We have actually been told above that Adam repented and also that his repentance was accepted by God. This way that the stain of sin to be washed away and also therefore no stain stayed On the contrary, God no only welcomed Adam"s repentance but juga honoured that by endowing him through prophethood so the he might he may be to straight his kids correctly. The repeat of the order to leave Paradise and go down to planet is aimed in ~ driving home the allude that earth was not developed as a place of punishment for man. Top top the contrary, man was put on planet to serve as God"s vicegerent there. The was only to check man and thereafter to equip him for the power of God"s vicegerency that male was put temporarily in Paradise. Check out also( n. 48 above.)
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54. Ayat is the many of ayah which means a "sign" or "token" which directs one to something important. In the Qur"an this word is used in four berbeda senses. Periodically it denotes a gejala or indication. In certain other areas the phenomena of the universe are dubbed the ayat (signs) that God, for the fact to which the phenomena point is tersembunyi behind the veil that appearances. At waktu the miracles perform by the Prophets are tambahan termed ayat sejak they present that the Prophets dulu envoys that the can be fried of the universe. Lastly, individual devices of the book of God are juga called ayat since they suggest to the ultimate reality, and because the substantive materials of the publication of God, its phraseology, that is style, its inimitable literature excellence space clear tokens the the characteristics of the writer of the Book. The sense in which words ayah has actually been digunakan in a particular verse becomes noticeable from the definisi kertas of that is occurrence.
55. This is a irreversible directive from God to mankind which is valid from the beginning of life until the day of Judgement. That is this which has been mentioned previously as God"s covenant see (n. 31 above). The is not for male to prescribe the way of life i m sorry his fellow manusia beings must follow. In his double capacity together the subject and vicegerent that God, guy is required to monitor the way of life prescribed by his Lord. There are only two means of accessibility to this way: either by straight revelation native God or by following one to whom God has revealed guidance. Nothing else can straight man come the means that enjoys God"s approval and good pleasure. Resorting to any kind of other means in quest of salvation is no only basically mistaken however tantamount to rebellion. The cerita of the development of Adam and the asal of the manusia species wake up seven waktu in the Qur"an, once in the verses hanya mentioned. For other references see (7: 11 ff), (15: 26 ff)., (17: 61 ff)., (18: 50),(20: 116 ff)., (38: 71 ff). The story tambahan occurs in the bible in Genesis 1, 2 and 3. A comparative analysis of the Qur"anic and also Biblical execution will allow the perceptive leader to detect the differences between the two. The dialogue in between God and also the angels at the moment of the production of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud. This account lacks the spiritual significance underlying the Qur"anic version. Indeed, the Talmudic version furthermore contains the complying with oddity: once the angels asking why males are being created, God replies that they are being created so the good setiap orang may be born amongst them. God refrains from pointing out the bad orang lest the angels disapprove the development of man! (See Paul telinga Hershon, Talmudic Miscellany, London, 1880, pp. 294