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Anda sedang menonton: Apa bedanya baking soda dan soda kue

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U.S. Consumer-packaged baking powder. This particular form of baking powder consists of monocalcium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, and also cornstarch.
Baking powder is a dried chemical leavening agent, a mixture that a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid, and also is used for enhancing the selang and lightening the structure of small goods. Baking powder functions by publication carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, bring about bubbles in the wet mixture come expand and also thus leavening the mixture. It is used instead that yeast because that end-products wherein fermentation seasonings would it is in undesirable<1> or wherein the batter lacks the elastic struktur to hold gas bubbles for an ext than a few minutes,<2> or to speed the production. Since carbon dioxide is exit at a faster perbandingan through the acid-base reaction than with fermentation, breads make by chemical leavening are referred to as quick breads.

Formulation and mechanism

Most commercially available baking flour are made up of salt bicarbonate (also well-known as baking soda or bicarbonate that soda) and one or much more acid salts. Usual formulations (by weight) call for 30% sodium bicarbonate, 5-12% monocalcium phosphate, and also 21-26% sodium aluminum sulfate. The terakhir two ingredients are acidic: they incorporate with the salt bicarbonate and also water to produce the gaseous carbon dioxide. The usage of two acidic materials is the mengurung of the hatchet "double acting." lagi typical acid in sebagai formulations is cream of tartar, a derivative the tartaric acid. Baking powders also include contents to membantu with the consistency and also stability of the mixture.<3>Commercial baking flour formulations are different from domestic ones, return the principles remain the same. Rather of salt aluminum sulfate, commercial baking powders use sodium mountain pyrophosphate as one of the two acidic components.

Baking soda (NaHCO3) is the resource of the carbon dioxide,<4> and the acid-base reaction have the right to be generically stood for as shown:<5>NaHCO3 + H+ → Na+ + CO2 + H2OThe actual reactions are more facility because the acids room complicated. For example, starting with baking soda and monocalcium phosphate the reaction produces carbon dioxide by the following stoichiometry:<3>14 NaHCO3 + 5 Ca(H2PO4)2 → 14 CO2 + Ca5(PO4)3OH + 7 Na2HPO4 + 13 H2O

Starch component

Baking powders juga include materials to improve anda consistency and stability. The paling important additive is cornstarch,<3> although potato starch may juga be used. The inert starch serves several attributes in baking powder. Primarily it is digunakan to menyerap moisture, and also thus expand shelf life by keeping the powder"s additional alkaline and also acidic components dry therefore as no to react with each various other prematurely. A dry powder juga flows and also mixes more easily. Finally, the included bulk enables for much more accurate measurements.<6>

Single vs double acting baking powders

The mountain in a baking powder have the right to be one of two people fast-acting or slow-acting.<7> A fast-acting acid reacts in a wet mixture through baking soda in ~ room temperature, and also a slow-acting acid will certainly not react till heated in an oven. Baking powders the contain both fast- and slow-acting mountain are double acting; itu that contain only one acid are solitary acting. By offering a second rise in the oven, double-acting baking powders rise the reliability of baked ns by rendering the time elapsed between mixing and also baking much less critical, and this is the type paling widely obtainable to consumers today. Double-acting baking powders occupational in two phases; once when cold, and also once once hot.<8> common low-temperature mountain salts encompass cream the tartar and monocalcium phosphate (also referred to as calcium mountain phosphate). High-temperature mountain salts incorporate sodium aluminium sulfate, salt aluminum phosphate, and also sodium mountain pyrophosphate.<9> Despite very low acute toxicity, exposure come aluminum salts has raised concerns about potential neurotoxicity.For example, Rumford Baking flour is a dobel acting consumer product that consists of only monocalcium phosphate as a leavening acid. Through this acid, about two-thirds of the easily accessible gas is released within about two minutes of mix at room temperature. It kemudian becomes dormant because an intermediate form of dicalcium phosphate is generated throughout the initial mixing. Lebih-lebih lagi release of gas memerlukan the batter to it is in heated above 140 °F (60 °C).<10>


Early chemistry leavening was completed by activating baking soda in the visibility of liquid(s) and also an acid sebagai as sour milk, vinegar, lemon juice, or cream the tartar.<11> this acidulants all react with baking soda quickly, definition that retention of gas bubbles was dependent on batter viscosity and that that was an important for the batter to be baked before the gas escaped. The perkembangan of baking powder produced a device where the gas-producing reactions mungkin be delayed till needed.<12>


Advertisement because that DeLand & Co"s chemical Baking flour (Established 1852, Fairport, new York.) Earliest mungkin date: 1877; latest mungkin date: 1893
While variasi baking powders were sold in the first half that the 19th century, the modern variants in use today were discovered through Alfred Bird in 1843. Respectable Oetker, a german pharmacist, made baking powder very popular when he started selling his mixture to housewives. The cooking recipes he produced in 1891 is still offered as Backin in Germany. Oetker started the massa production the baking powder in 1898 and also patented his an approach in 1903.In the US, Joseph and Cornelius Hoagland developed a baking powder v the help of one employee following the American polite War. Dari mereka formula ended up being known as imperial Baking Powder. The small company ultimately moved from fort Wayne, Indiana to new York in the 1890s and became the biggest manufacturer of baking flour in the US.Eben Norton Horsford, a student of Justus von Liebig, who started his researches on baking powder in 1856, eventually arisen a range he called in respect of count Rumford. Through the mid-1860s "Horsford"s Yeast Powder" was on the market as one already-mixed leavening agent, distinct from separate packages of calcium mountain phosphate and sodium bicarbonate. His product to be packaged in bottles, but Horsford was interested in lihat metal cans because that packing; this supposed the mixture had actually to be much more moisture resistant. This was accomplished by the addition of corn starch, and in 1869 Rumford began the produce of what can important be thought about baking powder. In 2006 Rumford Baking Powder was designated a National historical Chemical Landmark in pengakuan of its meaning for produksi baking easier, quicker, and an ext reliable.<13>During dunia War II, Byron H. Smith, an inventor in Bangor, Maine (U.S.), created a instead of product for American housewives, who menjadi unable to acquire cream the tartar or baking powder as result of war food shortages. Under the surname "Bakewell", smith marketed a mixture of sodium pyrophosphate blended with corn starch to change the acid cream the tartar component of baking powder. When combined with baking soda, the product behaved favor a single-acting baking powder, the only difference being that the acid is sodium acid pyrophosphate. A comparable product is marketed today, di bawah the surname Bakewell Cream.



Generally one teaspoon (5 grams (0.18oz)) the baking flour is tangan kedua to progressive a mixture the one cup (125g) of flour, one cup that liquid, and one egg. However, if the mixture is acidic, baking powder"s additional acids will continue to be unconsumed in the chemical reaction and often meminjamkan an uncomfortable taste to food. High acidity have the right to be resulted in by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon juice, yogurt, citrus or honey. When excessive acid is present, several of the baking powder need to be changed with baking soda. For example, one cup of flour, one egg, and also one cup that buttermilk memerlukan only ½ tespoon of baking powder—the remaining leavening is resulted in by buttermilk mountain reacting with ¼ teaspoon of baking soda.On the various other hand, through baking powders that contain sodium mountain pyrophosphate, overabundance alkaline substances can sometimes deprotonate the mountain in two steps rather of the one that normally occurs, leading to an offensive bitter taste to small goods. Calcium compounds and aluminium compounds do not have that problem though, darimana calcium compounds the deprotonate twice room insoluble and alumunium compounds execute not deprotonate in that fashion.Moisture and heat can reason baking powder to shed its performance over time, and commercial varieties have a rather arbitrary expiration date printed top top the container. Regardless of the expiration date, the effectiveness can be tested by place a teaspoon of the powder right into a small container of hot water. If it bubbles energetically, it is still active and usable.<14>Different brands of baking powder have the right to perform quite in different way in the oven. In one test, 6 U.S. Brands were digunakan to bake putih cake, cream biscuits, and chocolate cookies. Depending upon the brand, the thickness the the cakes differed by up to 20 percent (from 0.89 inches to 1.24 inches). That was juga found the the lower-rising commodities made what dulu judged to be far better chocolate cookies.<15>

Substituting in recipes

Substitute acids

As defined above, baking flour is mainly just baking soda combined with one acid. In principle, a sourse of kitchen acids may be linked with baking soda to simulate commercial baking powders. Vinegar (dilute acetic acid), especially putih vinegar, is juga a usual acidifier in baking; for example, numerous heirloom coco cake recipes call for a tablespoon or 2 of vinegar.<16> wherein a recipe already uses buttermilk or yogurt, baking soda can be used without cream of tartar (or through less). Alternatively, lemon juice deserve to be substituted for some of the fluid in the recipe, to provide the required acidity come activate the baking soda. The key variable through the usage of these kitchen mountain is the kecepatan of leavening.

Substitutes because that baking soda

In times past, as soon as chemically made baking soda was not available, "ash water" was tangan kedua instead. Ashes native hardwood tree contain carbonates and also bicarbonate salts, which deserve to be extracted v water. This strategy became obsolete v the accessibility of purified baking soda.

Usage of aluminium compounds

Baking flour are obtainable both with and without aluminium compounds.

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<17> Some rakyat prefer not to use baking flour with aluminium because they think it provides food a vaguely metallic taste and alumunium is not critical mineral. Others object because of possible kesehatan concerns associated with aluminium intake. In 2015, Cook"s Country, an American TV show and magazine,<15> evaluated six baking flour marketed to consumers. They reported the 30% of milik mereka testers (n=21) noted a metallic odor in cream biscuits made with brands containing aluminum.<15>