Newsroom berita Articles comparing GHG Emissions indigenous Biodiesel Production and Fossil Fuels: i beg your pardon is Lower?
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By: Mutmainah Septiani, Traction power Asia

“Global Warming” has akan quite a catchphrase nowadays. The word “global” kekuasaan it an important issue, darimana it concerns the whole dunia and not just specific countries. It definitely leaves united state wondering: what causes global warning? And what harm melakukan it do?

Global warming is basically led to by the high concentration the Greenhouse Gases (GHG)―Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane―which room released right into the air and cause the median temperature that the atmosphere and sea come increase. GHG space not only harmful come our health, but also disastrous because that Earth’s ecosystems. So, apa are Indonesia’s efforts to get over this?

In 2015, through his dinyatakan at UNFCCC COP 21 in Paris, president Joko Widodo proclaimed Indonesia’s commitment to the global action and pledged to minimize GHG emissions through 29% in 2030. Most of the efforts made by the Indonesian federal government are projected native mitigation actions in land and also energy sectors, with brand-new and renewable energy (NRE) part targeted in ~ 23% of total national energy mix by 2025 and also 31% through 2050. These targets are had in the Presidential Regulation No. 22 the 2017 on national Energy untuk merencanakan (RUEN).

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Following increase the RUEN, the Indonesian government issued a numberi of policies for the function of achieve the targets. One of them is the policy on the usage of Biodiesel produced from crude Palm Oil (CPO) because that the transport sector.

The Indonesian Government set out the implementation and also utilization the biodiesel progressively in several stages. The first stage is the use of B15, i beg your pardon is a mixture of 15% biodiesel and 85% diesel/fossil fuel, followed by the usage of B20 (20% CPO) in lanjut stage, kemudian B30 (30% CPO), and also so on till it will B100 (green fuel). The usage of palm oil commodity together feedstock for Biodiesel production is expected to fulfill the complying with purposes:

Achieving national energy resilienceReducing consumptions and imports that fossil fuelsCreating included value for the palm oil industri from upstream to downstreamContributing come the palliation of GHG emissions in the energy sector.

However, biodiesel production process has developed a polemic, considering it largely uses palm oil, which is considered not eco-friendly. This has akan a isu for the eco-friendly activists. Biodiesel burning emissions are certainly lower contrasted to those of fossil fuels, but the carbon footprint that the whole biodiesel manufacturing process could be higher. In various other words, the biodiesel policy has become a paradox, as the biodiesel is supposed to alleviate GHG emissions however on the various other hand the produces an ext GHG emissions native the manufacturing process.

Study top top Biodiesel manufacturing Emissions

Traction power Asia (Traction) conducted a untuk mempelajari using the Life Cycle evaluation (LCA) methodology ~ above the manufacturing of CPO-based biodiesel. The purpose of the riset is to uncover out even if it is the usage of biodiesel will certainly produce much more GHG emissions contrasted to the use of fossil fuel or the other method around. The border of this study starts from the floor Use change (LUC) phase to B20 mix stage. Thus, the LCA will display the bruto emissions created from the biodiesel manufacturing practices.

The data digunakan in the study was obtained from the sustainability report of number of palm oil companies. In addition, Traction research study team tambahan conducted a bidang survey to collection samples and also verify the data that smallholders. Because that the survey, Traction determined two regencies in each of two provinces: Siak and also Pelalawan in Riau and Sanggau and Sintang in west Kalimantan. The two provinces dulu chosen because, according to the data native the Directorate basic of Plantations in 2018, they are amongst the five largest palm-oil-producing provinces in Indonesia.

The large selang of GHG emissions is practically caused by differences in the initial function of the land, the type and amount of fertilizer used in the farm, the procedure of distributing fresh fruit bunches (FFB) to the palm oil mills (POM), and also palm oil mill effluent (POME) management practices in the POM. The use of peatlands together independent smallholders’ palm oil plantations outcomes in higher emissions from independent smallholders contrasted to plantation companies, as presented in the adhering to chart:

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Illustration 1.

According to the study, berbisa GHG emissions native LUC ar to biodiesel varieties from 2.67 kg CO2eq/L of B20 to 7.09 kg CO2eq/L of B20. Initially, emissions produced from plantation companies dulu higher. However, since the company productivity―as the denominator in the calculation―is juga high, the emissions per ton of FFB is lower. Lagi differentiating aspect is the form of soil: mineral or peat. Biodiesel created by plantations top top peatlands results in a really high boost of GHG emissions, up to 6.08 kg CO2eq/L of B20 in barat Kalimantan and 7.09 kg CO2eq/L B20 in Riau. However, if that is assumed that there is no palm oil development on peatlands and all land development is lugged out ~ above mineral soil, berbisa emissions generated by elevation smallholders and also plantation carriers are not that much different. Therefore, cultivation on peatlands is break up to it is in the utama contributor come the last GHG emissions from biodiesel.

Aside indigenous LUC sector, the study finds the GHG emissions indigenous POME in POM juga contributes to kasar emissions. The usage of methane record facility has proved to be efficient in to reduce the emissions native POME in POM by an ext than 50% of berbisa GHG emissions. Therefore, the is essential to ensure the the CPO is produced by POMs equipped through methane catch facilities. Currently, there are only about 10–11% the biodiesel plants the are penampilan the facilities.

The adhering to are conclusions that the riset by Traction:

GHG emissions from plantations and also POM contribute 83–95% of kasar GHG emissions.The methane capture facility in POM deserve to reduce about half of the bruto emissions of POM, which is part of the it is provided chain.The efficiency of independent smallholder plantations is lower than company plantations. With productivity tingkat of live independence smallholders gift 50% lower than that of company plantations, the dimension of land essential by independent smallholders to create the same output as firm plantations is twice bigger.FFB transportation is the main contributor come GHG emissions native independent smallholders.

Suggestions suggest by Traction because that the improvement of biodiesel production governance are:

GHG emission threshold need to be collection for the use of CPO together feedstock because that biodiesel in Indonesia.The traceability of FFB is urgently required in the production of CPO-based biodiesel.Improvement in the management of FFB circulation to POM is juga required to alleviate GHG emissions from transportation sector.The productivity of elevation smallholders demands to it is in increased.Better coordination in between LUCF or plantation sector and energy ar is indispensable.

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Based ~ above the study, Traction concludes that in stimulate to fulfill the power resilience and GHG emission reduction targets together pledged by the Indonesian Government, a good governance of the usage of CPO-based biodiesel is an absolute requirement. Moreover, it must be ensured that biodiesel is a clean energy from the upstream come downstream sectors.