Sumber digital seperti bahan pustaka sudah jamak digunakan. Part says itupenggunaan harus berhati-hati keuntungan bahan pembawa acara elektronik, with a pinch the salt kata orang. Harus kita kronik kesahihan artikel tersebut. Terlepas dari chapter itu, kadang kita bingung bagaimana menuliskannya didalam partij pustaka. Nah berikut ini caranya.

Anda sedang menonton: Aturan penulisan daftar pustaka dari internet

Saya sadur 100% dari situs ini dan ini. Berikut tulisan tersebut. Harapan bermanfaat


Reference List: digital Sources

Article native an online Periodical

Note: In 2007, the what released numerous additions/modifications because that documentation of digital sources in the maafkan saya Style overview to digital References. These transforms are reflected in the entries below. Please note that there space no spaces digunakan with base in APA.

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Incorporate all details the online host makes available, including an melepaskan number in parentheses. Administer a retrieval day only if the info is most likely to be updated or adjusted at a later date (as in the situation of blogs and also wikis). Dari many virtual periodicals appear in anda “final” form, a retrieval day is no necessary.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date the publication). Title of article. Title of digital Periodical, ton number(issue mageri if available). Recall month day, year, (if necessary) native

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 sepuluh on creating the life Web. A list Apart: For people Who do Websites, 149. Retrieved might 2, 2006, from

Online academic Journal Article

Since virtual materials have the right to potentially readjust URL’s, maafkan saya recommends giving a diganjar Object i would (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOI’s are an effort to administer stable, long-lasting links for digital articles. Lock are distinct to dari mereka documents and also consist the a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first halaman of the document.

Note the some online bibliographies administer an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code dibawah a switch which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation the a sellers name prefer “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This switch will typically lead the user come the penuh article i beg your pardon will incorporate the DOI. Find DOI’s from publish publications or ones that go come dead links with’s “DOI Resolver,” i beg your pardon is presented in a central location on anda home page.

Article native an digital Periodical through DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Judul of article. Title that Journal, ton number. Doi:0000000/000000000000

Article from an online Periodical v no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal posts without a DOI require a URL yet do not call for a retrieval date. Administer a retrieval day only if the details is likely to it is in updated or changed at a later date (as in the situation of blogs and wikis). Since most journal articles show up in dari mereka “final” form, a retrieval day is not needed.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date that publication). Judul of article. Title of Journal, nada number. Retrieved month day, year, native

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist an answer to the nature of manusia rights. Journal of buddhism Ethics, 8.Retrieved February 20, 2001, indigenous

If the article shows up as a published version together well, the URL is no required. Use “Electronic version” in brackets after the article’s title.

Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power v appointment . Social scientific research Research, 29, 535-555.

Article indigenous a Database

When express material acquired from an digital database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation details (formatted just like a “normal” print citation would be for that kind of work). Kemudian add details that gives the day of retrieval and the appropriate name of the database. This will allow setiap orang to retrieve the print version if they carry out not have access to the database from which friend retrieved the article. Girlfriend can juga include the item number or accession mageri in parentheses in ~ the end, however the maafkan saya manual claims that this is not required. (For much more about citing short articles retrieved from electronic databases, see halaman 278 the the publishing Manual.)

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment the peas. Journal the Abnormal Eating, 8(3). Re-cover February 20, 2003, from PsycARTICLES database.


If you only point out an abstract but the jenuh text that the short article is tambahan available, mention the online abstrak as various other online citations, adding “” ~ the article or source name. If only the abstrak is available, create “Abstract recall from” and provide the database surname or URL.

Paterson, P. (2008). Just how well execute young offenders through Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: 2 prison instance studies . British journal of discovering Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58. Retrieved indigenous EBSCO organize database.

Bossong, G. Ergativity in Basque. Linguistics, 22(3), 341-392. Abstrak retrieved from grammars Abstracts Online.

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title the article. Judul of Newspaper. Recall

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, might 6). Psychiatry handbook connected to drug industry. The new York Times. Retrieved indigenous

Electronic Books

Electronic publications may include publications found on personal websites, databases, or also in audio form. Usage the following format if the publication you are lihat is only listed in a digital format or is challenging to discover in print. If the occupational is not directly available online or have to be purchased, use “Available from,” quite than “Retrieved from,” and allude readers to where they can find it.

De Huff, E.W. Taytay’s tales: traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved indigenous

Davis, J. Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Accessible from

Chapter/Section the a Web document or Online book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Judul of article. In title of book or larger record (chapter or ar number). Re-cover month day, year, indigenous

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server variation 1.3 Documentation (Apache modules.) Retrieved march 10, 2006, from

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Readjust in the Nineties. In J.S. Bough and G.B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of development in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE: usage a chapter or section identifier and administer a URL that links straight to the halaman section, not the home halaman of the net site.

Online publication Reviews

Cite the info as you usually would for the occupational you space quoting. (The very first example below is from a newspaper article; the 2nd is from a academic journal.) In brackets, compose “Review the the book” and give the judul of the the evaluation work. Administer the web deal with after the words “Retrieved from,” if the tinjauannya is freely available to anyone. If the tinjauannya comes from a subscription organization or database, write “Available from” and administer the information where the tinjauan can be purchased.

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce’s critics: Transitions in reading and also culture, and Joyce’s messianism: Dante, an adverse existence, and the messianic self>. Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Accessible from project MUSE net site:

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment tujuan in Parkinson’s disease. Retrieved indigenous ProQuest diganjar Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and also Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and also dictionaries perform not provide bylines (authors’ names). When no byline is present, relocate the entry surname to the former of the citation. Administer publication days if present or specify (n.d.) if no day is existing in the entry. Due to the fact that updates and modifications are not normally specified, administer the retrieval date in the citation. As soon as listing the URL, offer only the home or table of contents root together opposed come the URL for the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved march 16, 2008, from http://

Online Bibliographies and also Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and also HCV in Prisons: A choose Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved native

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web deal with (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that houses data to adjust on the website (use “Available from”).

United says Department of Housing and Urban Development. Indiana income limits . Retrieved indigenous

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic depictions of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization complied with by the date. In brackets, carry out a brief explanation of maafkan saya type of data is there and in what membentuk it appears. Finally, provide the task name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). . Solar Spectral Data accessibility from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, point out the interview only in the message (not in the referral list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio document or transcript is available online, use the adhering to model, specifying the median in base (e.g. ):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral history 2 . Retrieved from Johnson an are Center Oral histories Project net site: http://

Online Lecture notes and Presentation Slides

When citing digital lecture notes, be certain to provide the document format in base after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, native document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory . Retrieved from Lecture notes Online net site:

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulation of chemistry in the environment . Retrieved from

Nonperiodical web Document, internet Page, or Report

List as much of the adhering to information as mungkin (you sometimes have to hunt approximately to find the information; don’t be lazy. If over there is a halaman like, and also somepage.htm doesn’t have actually the details you’re spring for, move up the URL come

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date the publication). Title the document. Recall month day, tahun (only if the text may potentially adjust over time), from http://Web address

NOTE: as soon as an Internet record is an ext than one internet page, administer a URL that web links to the home halaman or entry page for the document. Also, if over there isn’t a date obtainable for the paper use (n.d.) because that no date.

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not point out standard office software program (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Administer references only for dedicated software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry . Brand-new York: Worth.

Software the is download from a net site should provide the software’s version and tahun when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory software application (Version 2.1) . Easily accessible from


E-mails space not contained in the perform of references, though you parenthetically point out them in your key text: (E. Robbins, an individual communication, januari 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion papan Posting

Include the title of the message, and also the URL of the newsgroup or conversation board. Please note that titles because that items in online neighborhoods (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) room not italicized. If the author’s surname is not available, provide the display name. Location identifiers like write-up or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL wherein the blog post is archived (e.g. “Message post to…, archived at…”).

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld that toylandia . Post posted to

Blog (Weblog) and video clip Blog Post

Include the judul of the message and also the URL. Please keep in mind that titles because that items in online neighborhoods (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) space not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, carry out the display name.

Dean, J. (2008, might 7). As soon as the diri sendiri emerges: Is the me in the mirror? article posted come

the1sttransport. (2004, September 26). Psychology video clip Blog #3


Please keep in mind that the APA style Guide to digital References advises writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, because that example) room collaborative jobs which can not guarantee the verifiability or specialization of milik mereka entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved might 1, 2008, from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. Org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, carry out as much details as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Mungkin addition identifiers may encompass Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T. & Phillips, T. 2008, may 6). A solar flare. Science
NASA Podcast
. Podcast retrieved native

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much info as possible; not every one of the complying with information will certainly be available. Mungkin addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, january 5). The masyarakat college classroom . Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from

Reference List: various other Non-Print Sources

Interviews, Email, and Other an individual CommunicationNo personal communication is contained in your recommendation list; instead, parenthetically mention the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and also the day of the interaction in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, an individual communication, januari 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith juga claimed that many of she students had difficulties with what style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Motion Picture

Basic referral list format:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date that publication). Title of motion snapshot . Bangsa of origin: Studio or distributor.

Note: If a movie or video band is not available in wide distribution, include the following to your citation ~ the negara of origin: (Available from distributor name, sepenuhnya address and zip code).

A Motion photo or Video band with worldwide or nationwide Availability

Smith, J.D. (Producer), & Smithee, A.F. (Director). (2001). Really huge disaster movie < activity picture>. United States: paramount Pictures.

A Motion photo or Video pita with minimal Availability

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history . (Available indigenous Purdue university Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, west Lafayette, IN 47907)

Television broadcast or collection Episode

Single ilustrasi of a televisi Series

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Judul of ilustrasi . In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City that origin: Studio or distributor.

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I.R. (Director). (1986). The increasing angel and also the falling ape . In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and also monsters. Los Angeles: belarus Studios.

Television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly berita hour . Brand-new York: main Broadcasting Service.

A television Series

Bellisario, D.L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting merencanakan show . Hollywood: American broadcast Company.

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Music Recording

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone conserved my life this evening . On Captain an excellent and the brown dirt cowboy . London: big Pig Music Limited.